© Media Watch 9 (3) 411-417, 2018 ISSN 0976-0911 | e-ISSN 2249-8818 DOI: 10.15655/mw/2018/v9i3/49498

Television in the Development of Information Society Culture in Kazakhstan


L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Kazakhstan

The role of television in the development of information society culture in Kazakhstan has been examined in the article. The features of the functioning of private television in relation to the state have been analyzed. It has been determined that the comprehensive state policy in this area is an important factor in the successful implementation of the communicative and educational functions of television. The features of modern info- communication technologies affecting the formation of Kazakhstan information culture have been revealed in the study. It is understood that for the effective use of educational functions of television and the advantages of new communication technologies, modern infrastructure should be at a comparably high level. The article examines the problems of the functioning of Kazakhstan television in the context of new legislation regulating the information policy of the state.

Keywords: Television, media, information society, info-communication infrastructure, functions of television.

The development of digital technologies has strengthened the possibilities of television among other mass media. Today’s technologies have significantly improved the audiovisual characteristics of television, which provides unlimited possibilities for the communication development of society. The ability to promptly report the events on air and broadcast them in a sound and visual form is called the simultaneity of television. The simultaneity increases the effect of perception of information. It plays an important role in the psychological perception of the information offered, proving the objectivity of the transferred units of information and actions. At the same time, it creates an effect as if a TV viewer appears at the place of the occurring event.

All this gives television broadcasting special documentality and realism and makes television programs an exceptional means in the fulfillment of communication tasks of mass media and gives it specific informative and cultural-educational properties. However, media-based learning does not necessarily make sense nor is it necessarily effective, for that matter, simply because it uses a medium. Rather, there are several variables that can and do influence its success: the very medium, the content, and the learner’s cognitive styles (Giessen, 2015). At the same time, modern technologies and means of communication have external effects on society in terms of changing consumer behavior and entrepreneurial abilities. The data was collected using questionnaire from final year students of entrepreneurship and computer sciences enrolled in Bachelors, so as to get a profound picture of their intention, motivation and ability to enter in IT related entrepreneurial ventures (Abbas, 2018).

As many studies show, the telecommunications market in developed societies takes important positions in the list of services in its importance and is even included in the consumer basket. All this shows the social importance of television (Reiman, 2001). In addition to the performance of information and communication functions, television performs a cultural-educational function, fulfills tasks to solve educational and moral problems of society.

Literature Review

The theoretical and methodological basis of this study includes the works on the theory of information society, on the role of the info-communication infrastructure of the state as an important factor in the successful performance of educational functions of television (Webster, 2001; Reiman, 2001; Borev, 1985), the ideology of developed industrial society (Marcuse, 1996).

When analyzing the TV content created on Kazakh television over the past 30 years, the author assumed that the development of the culture-forming potential of television broadcasting is needed to improve the communicative and educational properties of television. The relevance of the research is to study the info-communicative infrastructure for the fulfillment of basic functions of television, taking into account the improved legal support governing the information policy of the state with due regard to the informational and educational properties of television (Molchanova, 2005; Information Society and Information Culture: Changed Paradigms of the 21st Century, 2012).

Due to the socio-political factors and peculiarities of the Kazakh society, in modern television products the liberal and undemanding origin dominates, which cannot fully disclose the richness of the cultural, spiritual-aesthetic and linguistic heritage of the Kazakh people for world culture (Borev, 1988; Zubov, & Fokeev, 1998; Molchanova, 2005).

In his conclusions, the author draws attention to the dangers of the cultural- informational trap of modern television broadcasting, while simultaneously influencing the development of spiritual values and the enrichment of cultural outlook, moral education; it can cause the viewers’ absolute indifference and an illusory sense of society’s stability to modern challenges (Andreev, 1996; Council of Europe, 1997; Castells, 2009).

Materials and Methods

This article focuses on the problematic issues of performing the function of television in creating information society culture and an attempt is made to identify the role of the state infrastructure as an important factor of the successful implementation of the communicative and educational functions of television.

For this purpose, it is necessary to solve the tasks that are different in content, but interrelated within the meaning (Borev, 1985):

-to ensure the positive dynamics of qualitative and quantitative growth of information culture of the state infrastructure;

-to determine the nature of information culture of television as an important element of information society;

-to conduct a full analysis of the information and cultural-educational qualities of modern television;

-to reveal the features of today’s advanced information-communication technologies that can influence the formation of information culture in the Kazakhstan society;

-to systematize the quality of performance by Kazakhstan television of its main functions in modern Kazakh culture.

On this basis, the author chose the functional, sociocultural and systemic methods that formed the theoretical and methodological basis of this article. These methods allowed considering the main functions of modern television in the formation of information society culture.

By using the socio-cultural approach, it was shown that modern television fulfills the role of an important element in the formation of information society culture (Borev, 1988). The method of functional analysis has made it possible to systematize teletext mechanisms, types of cultural interrelations, which are reflected in many mass media texts.

The legislative acts of Kazakhstan in the sphere of information policy, on the creation of information society and e-government are used in the work. These regulatory legal acts demonstrate a good level of legislative regulation and the liberal nature of the legal institution of Kazakhstan in the formation of information culture of the society, the improvement of communicative and cultural-educational functions of television.


Kazakhstan television is by far the most accessible and popular means of mass communication. It occupies an important segment of the country’s media market, providing citizens with information and knowledge from all areas of social relations and human activities. Television has a huge impact on political, economic, information and cultural processes. Well-known researchers wrote about the formation of a “communication society” based on communication (Webster, 2001).

At the same time, Kazakh scientists and journalists do not conduct valuable measurements and studies of the telecommunications market and in the digital technology segment. Television as a means of forming the information culture of society also remains a little-studied part of the media market. This provision shows the relevance of the scientific method of studying modern television. The authors tried to consider the functioning of television as a factor affecting cultural processes in the information society. Many researchers agree with the opinion about the onset of a qualitatively different stage of development of human civilization, where human life is radically changed under the influence of new technologies (Council of Europe, 1997).

As is known, the American scientific community does not use the term “information society”. They use the term “information superhighway”. On the contrary, in Europe the definition “information society” can be found in many official documents of the European Union. In this article, an information society is understood as a society that is formed and depends on the level of convergence of information and communication technologies. Such society is characterized by the accelerated interpenetration and influence of different cultures; at the same time, it opens up wide opportunities for self-identification of any person. Information culture is understood as the way to harmonize the spiritual component of a person with the surrounding world, the ability to replenish one’s knowledge, identify, find and use socially important information.

For well-being and obtaining the necessary knowledge, it is necessary to have unhindered access to information and information technology skills. For these purposes, state policy is implemented in Kazakhstan. The Ministry of Information and Communication has been tasked to ensure favorable conditions for the development of Kazakhstan’s mass media, taking into account global trends. State bodies adopt a set of incentive mechanisms and change legislation on information and communication issues. The state program “Digital Kazakhstan” was adopted. Experts forecast that the expected results of the state program ‘can contribute to the successful development of digital television in the country’ (Figure 1).

81.5% level of digital literacy of the population

80% share of e-government services

5.9% growth in labor productivity in ICTs

81% share of Internet users

Figure 1. Forecast of expected results of the State Program "Digital Kazakhstan" for 2020

At the same time, the transformation of the information space of Kazakhstan takes place through the formation of new mechanisms of the state information order, which is based on the principles of transparency and efficiency. For this purpose, it is necessary to use the international experience of subsidizing and work further on improving the quality of broadcasting of Kazakhstan television.

In the process of reforms in the info-communication sphere, it was decided to pre-serve printed publications, which are the main source of information for some of the popu-lation. For this purpose, an analytical component of printed publications will be enhanced.

Another direction is the development of the Kazakh segment of the Internet, which will consist of two areas. The first one includes technical issues - the provision of the population with broadband Internet access services. Today, the number of Kazakhstan Internet users exceeds 72%; however, the ultimate goal is to reach maximum indicators (Marcuse, 1996). In terms of penetration of broadband Internet access, Kazakhstan has a good rating among developing countries. This indicator in the business segment is much better than in the segment of Home Internet (Figure 2).

According to the state program of digitalization of settlements, more than 1,200 settlements will be equipped with high-speed Internet access. The provision of members of society with the possibility of unhindered access to socially important information will be another direction. With new technologies, digital television reaches the most remote settle-ments of Kazakhstan, the residents of which got the opportunity to watch news, favorite TV programs and films. Thus, one can state that Kazakhstan television creates new standards of culture and is an essential indicator of the level of development of public and national culture (Andreev, 1996).

Figure 2. The level of Internet penetration in Kazakhstan

Modern Kazakhstan television is characterized by a shift of emphasis on light entertain- ment projects, instead of cultural-educational and educative programs. Kazakhstan's cre- ative community is concerned about the lack of educative programs on state-run TV chan- nels that would cover political, economic and socio-cultural changes in the life of the country. Increasingly regular discussions on pages of online media about the need to pur- posefully raise the level of culture and knowledge of society force managers of teleholdings to change the program broadcasting policy, their program policy, the concepts of ongoing projects.

The info-communications infrastructure of the state has been dynamically develop- ing in Kazakhstan over the past 15 years. This is evidenced by a stable growth in revenues in the communications industry, which is also an important indicator of the increase in the scope of information services. The structure and dynamics of revenues from communica- tion services is an important indicator of the development of the info-communications industry of the state (Figure 3). Statistical data indicate the correctness of the chosen development model. Annual growth of the industry from 7 to 10% has been observed over the last 15 years.

Figure 3. Structure of revenues from communication services in Kazakhstan (January-

December 2017)

The analysis shows that Kazakhstan authorities take sufficient measures to eliminate information inequality, improve the information culture of society. All this shows the scale of Kazakhstan programs on the development of info-communication capabilities of the country.

In this article, the author shares the opinion on the importance of the culture- forming function of television. At the same time, the authors emphasize its educational features, based on the following principles:

(i)Information culture as a sociocultural element of the information society, which plays an important role in the formation of this society;

(ii)Communication and educational properties of television in information society culture;

(iii)New info-communication technologies are an important link in the formation of information culture in the Kazakhstan information society;

(iv)The influence of Kazakhstan TV channels on the cultural and information situation in the republic, the editorial broadcasting policy of a TV channel – on the enforcement of spiritual, cultural and national traditions of Kazakhstan society.


The television segment of communication actively forms new spiritual values, worldview and type of culture (Castells, 2009). Like many cultures of the peoples of the world, the culture of the Kazakh people also consists of acquired and created values. Undoubtedly, mass media play an important role in its formation. Television propaganda plays a significant role here, as well as it plays an important role in the dissemination of spiritual values.

Affirming the necessity and revealing the role of television broadcasting in the formation of new cultural landmarks, it is important to study the influence of television on the culture of the people, information and social policy.

As in many developing countries, television is a generally available source of information in Kazakhstan. It provides the majority of the population with the necessary information, simultaneously affecting the political, economic and socio-cultural well-being of society. The author viewed television as a way of disseminating information with information properties only. The development of information technologies has changed the traditional properties of television towards strengthening the communicative direction and interactive communication of the viewer with the TV studio (Zubov & Fokeev, 1998; Information Society and Information Culture: Changed Paradigms of the 21st Century, 2012). Modern researchers distinguish several elements of interaction between the parties of the communicative process: “a creator of information – technical means of transfer – an information message – the audience”.

Over the past 20 years, Kazakh television has become an important tool for the creation and dissemination of cultural values and performs the following functions:

Kazakhstan TV channels disseminate cultural information, performing an informative function;

Kazakh television conducts and promotes propaganda of national values, performs cultural and educational functions;

TV projects of Kazakhstan TV channels are aimed at raising the cultural and educative level of Kazakhstan society.

Kazakhstan TV channels produce a wide range of national products (Molchanova, 2005). The television market turns into an art and educational encyclopedia for the mass audience. In this regard, a culture-forming function of television is of particular importance.


The article revealed the information and educational qualities of television and confirmed its dual functions: television broadcasting is a mass communication tool that most effectively serves in the propaganda of cultural policy. The problems of the functioning of Kazakhstan television under the new legislation regulating the information policy of the state have been examined.

The basis for the effective implementation of the educational functions of television is the high level of the info-communication industry, new communication technologies. Over the past 10-15 years, Kazakhstan has developed its infrastructure on a systemic basis; the annual growth of the industry is 7-10%. All this taken together promotes the successful implementation of the communicative and educational functions of television and the information policy of the state in general.


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Dr. Ulbossyn M. Yessenbekova is an associate professor in the Department of Teleradio and Public Relations at L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Republic of Kazakhstan. His research interest is scientific direction of media such as: trends in the development of modern mass communications, human in the information society.